- How many liquid streams are involved in the desalination process?
- How desalination has been useful to coastal communities?
- What are some other advantages of reverse osmosis desalination?
- Which country is the highest produces of desalinated water?
Desalination, in simplest terms, is a process of making saline water usable. This is done by separating salt from the saline water. This technology can reduce salinity of water from 4,000 ppm to 400 ppm.
How many liquid streams are involved in the desalination process?
Three liquid streams are involved in each desalination process, namely saline feedwater (seawater or brackish water), low-saline water (the primary output of reverse osmosis desalination), and very saline concentrate (also called reject water).
Underground sources or oceans supply the saline feedwater. Using desalination, the saline feedwater is then divided into two streams: low salinity product water and high salinity concentrate streams.
How desalination has been useful to coastal communities?
Thanks to desalination, many coastal communities are able overcome the paradox of having an unending supply of water that is saline but no way to use the saline water. While with chemical treatment some dissolved substances, like calcium carbonate, can be removed, other substances, such as sodium chloride, can be removed only by using more technologically-advanced methods, known as desalination.
Some years back, removing salts from water was both a difficult and expensive proposition. Because of these reasons saline waters then couldn’t be used as a source of drinking water. However, in 1950s desalination was used for the first time as a practical method for making saline water potable.
What are some other advantages of reverse osmosis desalination?
Some other notable advantages of reverse osmosis desalination are as follows:
Helps in meeting the water demands of the population
Supplying fresh water to everyone is increasingly becoming difficult. However, thanks to reverse osmosis desalination, local authorities are able to provide fresh, drinkable water to everyone without over extraction and pollution of coastal fresh underwater.
At present, reverse osmosis is without a doubt most popular desalination process. It is most well-suited in case of absence of local energy source.
The processing system is simple
The process system of reverse osmosis is fairly simple. The only challenging thing is producing or finding a clean supply of feedwater to prevent frequent cleaning of the membrane.
Low installation costs
This, along with the efficiency of reverse osmosis desalination, is the reason why this process is the most preferred choice of making saline water potable.
Low maintenance and high capacity
Other key advantages are low cost of maintenance of an RO plant and high output. It is possible to produce a supply of product water of 750 000 I/day (brackish water) and 400 000 I/day (sea water).
Can make use of sea water
Reverse osmosis technologies can make use of sea water, which is an inexhaustible water source. Reverse osmosis desalination is capable of removing not only organic contaminants but also inorganic contaminants.
Minimum environmental impact
Another reason behind the huge popularity of reverse osmosis desalination is that it has a negligible impact on the environment. Other than the need to dispose brine or reject water (which is the second output), there is no negative impact of this process.
In fact brine water too can be put to good use—and often it is. It is frequently diluted with treated effluent and then disposed of by spraying in open space areas, like the golf course.
Which country is the highest produces of desalinated water?
Since then, reverse osmosis desalination has become immensely popular, especially in gulf countries. Saudi Arabia produces the maximum quantity of desalinated water. The second highest production of desalinated water is Bahrain.
While it is true that reverse osmosis desalination is was in general more suitable for treating brackish water, it has been successfully used for desalinating sea water in 80s.
==> Learn more of the reverse osmosis water purification systems can help filter saline water into pure water.